Analysis of Maillard reaction products
Analysis Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and Furfural compounds
The pathway that leads to formation of HMF consists of 2 possible routes:
- Continuation of the Maillard Reaction from an Amadori product, meaning that HMF is a good indicator for Maillard Reactions in advanced stage.
- Sugar degradation and caramelization, facilitated by heat treatment. This route especially works with sucrose and fructose and is accelerated under acidic conditions. This type can happen during storage of food products under inappropriate conditions. This second route is independent from the first route.
HMF is definitely a clear marker of more severe heating and is analyzed in numerous products, such as:
- Milk and milk products like milk powders and infant formulas
- Honey and syrups
- Tomato paste
- Bakery products
- Roasted products like coffee beans
HMF can be measured as “free form” but also as “total” after hydrolysis, better described as “potential” HMF. The short hydrolysis will release protein bound furfural and furfural from Amadori products.